Aloysii Galvani De viribus electricitatis in motu musculari commentarius
Ex Typographia Instituti Scientiarium, Bononiae, 1791
59. Animal Electricity
Galvani, an anatomist at Bologna, noticed the twitch of dissected frogs' legs when touched in certain ways by his scalpel. After much careful experimentation he decided that the motion was caused by a vital force he termed "animal-electricity." His original paper appeared as an "opusculum" in the transactions of the Bologna Academy of Science, in 1791. Galvani sent an offprint to Volta (at Pavia) who repeated the experiments, differed in their interpretation, discovered "contact electricity" and invented the voltaic pile, source of direct-current generation.