Subject Guide - Anthropology Library


  • A Career in Archaeology in the United States - FAQ
    Addresses the issues of job availability and potential employment, educational requirements, and how to volunteer for a dig. It also contains references to sources for background information in the field of archaeology.
  • A Mesoamerican Archaeology WWW Page
    This site holds a broad range of sources of topical information, including announcements, newsgroups and listservers, software, and pictures.
  • ABZU

    A resource focusing on the ancient Near East, Abzu gives access to a number of digitized texts and other online publications. Edited by Charles E. Jones, Research Archivist-Bibliographer at the University of Chicago's Oriental Institute, the site allows one to locate and display desired sources either by entering terms in a search engine or by browsing by author or title.

  • Archaeology Southwest

    Archaeology Southwest, a private nonprofit organization, promotes stewardship of archaeological and historical resources in the American Southwest and Mexican Northwest through active research, preservation, and public education. Its website includes links to online exhibits, news and newsletters, descriptions of projects, a bookstore, and various resources.

  • Corpus of Maya Hieroglyphic Inscriptions

    Produced by Harvard University's Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, this website provides an invaluable source of information about ancient Maya inscriptions and their associated figurative art.

  • Mediterranean Archaeology Resources

    Developed by a classical archaeologist, Ioannis Georganas, this site provides a useful compilation of links to journals, bibliographies, online resources, and organizations relating to the ancient Mediterranean.

  • National Association of State Archaeologists

    Clicking on the name of a state of the United States displays the name and address of that state's official archaeologist.

  • National Park Service: Archeology Program

    This site offers multiple sources of information about prehistoric and historic North American archaeology, including reports on Kennewick Man and links to federal laws and regulations, as well as to standards relating to cultural resources.

  • National Park Service: National Archeological Database (NADB)

    With links to three modules---reports, maps, and permits---the NADB offers inventories of more than 350,000 archaeological investigations, maps displaying archaeological and environmental data at the state/county level, and historical and regulatory information about archaeological permits issued by the Department of Interior. It can be searched by keyword, material, and geographic area.

  • Upper Paleolithic Caves of France

    Websites produced by the French Ministry of Culture and Communication enable viewers to take virtual tours of three marvelous cave sites famed for their prehistoric wall paintings: Lascaux closed to visitors since 1963; Chauvet, discovered in 1994; and La Grotte Cosquer, located on the Mediterranean coast and accessible only to divers.

Bureau of American Ethnology (BAE)

  • Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin Series Home Page: SI LIbraries


  • First Nations Tribal Collection

    Part of SODA (Southern Oregon Digial Archives) consisting of materials relating to indigenous people in this region. Contains excerpts from some BAE publications. Adobe Reader is required to view document.

  • Francis La Flesche: American Indian Scholar

    Reproduced from Folklife Center News 4 (Jan1981):1, 10-11. Life history of BAE ethnologist (1910-1929) who worked extensively on Omaha and music and rituals of the Osage. Includes photos of him and some prominent Osage figures. American Folklife Center, Library of Congress.

  • Frank Hamilton Cushing

    Biographical sketch with photo concentrating on the period he spent with the Zuni Pueblo people . Maintained by PBS Online.

  • Gallica, bibliothèque numérique de la Bibliothèque nationale de France

    Part of the online library of the National Library of France. Includes full-text BAE Annual Reports from v.1 (year 1879-1880) through v. 48 (year 1930-1931). Once you are in, click Recherche and type Bureau of American Ethnology into the Mots du titre space and click rechercher. Click on top icon associated with the BAE Annual Report to see complete list.

  • General Nelson A. Miles on the Sioux Outbreak of 1890

    Excerpts from James Mooney article titled "Ghost Dance Religion and the Sioux Outbreak of 1890" published in BAE Annual Report 14(2). Includes I : Statement of General Miles; II; Reports forwarded by Brigadier-General Ruger, commanding, Department of Dakota; and III. Field Dispatches of General Miles.

  • Guide to the Collections of the National Anthropological Archives

    Look under the 'B' listings for information about the NMNH collections of BAE material including records, photographs, illustrations, etc.

  • Jesse Fewkes

    A short biography of BAE long time member and Chief (1918-1928). Concentrating on his Mesoamerican archaeological career. Part of Smithsonian Expeditions website.

  • John Wesley Powell, Major, United States Army

    Several obituaries from news reports and a longer article on his life contributions. Photos of Powell, his wife, his appointment as Director of the U.S.G.S. and his grave stone. From Arlington National Cemetery website.

  • Lakota Accounts of the Massacre at Wounded Knee

    Extracts from report of meeting between Sioux and Commissioner of Indian Affairs, Feb 11, 1891. Taken from James Mooney's article "Ghost Dance Religion and the Sioux Outbreak of 1890" published in BAE Annual Report 14(2). Part of PBS Online's New Perspectives on the West.

  • Lost in the Grand Canyon

    Website accompanying film. Includes a timeline of trip, map with dates and journal entries, short bios, information about Grand Canyon geology, teacher's guide, etc.

  • Minnesota Author Biographies Project: Frances Densmore

    A short biography of Frances Densmore as well as a list of selected works and additional resources. Maintained by the Minnesota Historical Society.

  • Native American Authors: Francis La Flesche

    A site maintained by the University of Michigan School of Information. Includes basic information on Francis La Flesche as well as a short listing of his published works.

  • ODAAT: one day at a time... John Wesley Powell archive

    Created to honor the 100th anniversary of Powell's death, this site proviedes information about Powell's life and work. Contains a number of photographs of the areas he surveyed as well as of Powell himself.

  • Omaha Indian Music

    The "American Memory" program of the Library of Congress is a large collection of recordings of Omaha Indian music including 44 recordings made by Francis La Flesche and Alice C. Fletcher among others.

  • River of Song: Music Along the River

    A description of Frances Densmore and Alice Fletcher's efforts to record Native American music. Created by PBS Online.

  • Song Catcher Frances Densmore

    Contains a great deal of information about Frances Densmore, including an article about her and the script of her radio biography.

  • Stevenson, Matilda Coxe Evans

    A concise biography of Matilda Coxe Evans Stevenson presented by Encyclopaedia Britannica.

  • Tales of the North American Indians

    Contains fragmented stories from BAE reports vi, xiii, xiv, xxxi, and xxxii as printed in Tales of the North American Indians compiled by Stith Thompson.

  • The Battle of Little Bighorn

    A PBS transcribed section of the BAE 10th Annual Report. The text is an eyewitness account of the Battle of Little Bighorn from Lakota Chief Red Horse, recorded by Garrick Mallery.

  • The Collection of Native American Photographs

    The University of Oxford's Pitt Rivers Museum offers a discussion of photography at the time of the BAE.

  • The Ghost Dance Among the Lakota

    An eyewitness account of a performance of the Ghost Dance, recorded by James Mooney. From the 14th Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology.

  • The Indian Ghost Dance and War

    This song, popular among American troops during the "Sioux Outbreak" campaign of 1890, was recorded by James Mooney in the 14th Annual Report of the BAE.

  • The Kurz Sketchbook

    Contains 48 plates of sketches by Rudolph Friederich Kurz originally published in the BAE Bulletin 115.

  • The Thirtieth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnography

    An excerpt of the Thirtieth Annual Report of the BAE entitled "Ethnobotony of the Zuni Indians" by Matilda Coxe Stevenson. Adobe Reader is necessary to view this document.

  • William Duncan Strong

    Information on William Duncan Strong and selections from his field journal.

  • William Henry Holmes

    A short biography of William Henry Holmes as maintained by the Smithsonian Institution.

  • Wovoka's Message: The Promise of the Ghost Dance

    A translation of Wovoka's "The Messiah Letter," found in the BAE's 14th Annual Report.

General Anthropology Resources

  • American Anthropology Obituary Index

    Drawing from obituaries in the American Anthropologist and Anthropology Newsletter, David Price of St. Martin's College has produced this useful list of obituaries of American anthropologists.

  • Anthropological Index Online (AIO)

    The AIO is a searchable database that provides bibliographic records of articles in periodicals housed in the Anthropology Library at the Centre for Anthropology, British Museum, which incorporates the library of the Royal Anthropological Institute. The database is especially strong in British and European publications relating to anthropology, ethnology, and archaeology. Articles indexed date from the 1960s to the present day.

  • Anthropology Plus

    Smithsonian staff may search Anthropology Plus, one of the Citation & Full-Text Databases accessible through the Research Tools webpage of the Smithsonian Institution Libraries. Available only to staff and students at subscribing institutions, Anthropology Plus combines the bibliographic records of journal articles and monographic series held by the Tozzer Library at Harvard, many of which date back to the middle of the nineteenth century, with those included in Anthropology Index Online.

  • Anthropology Resources on the Internet

    This site, made available by the American Anthropological Association, has an abundance of links to anthropology-related Internet sites worldwide. Of particular interest is an extensive list of organizations and institutes, as well as a comprehensive list of discussion goups.

  • Documentary Educational Resources

    Anthropology-related documentary films and books on documentary films and film-making are available from this source. Its pages include a searchable index and detailed ordering instructions. After clicking on a topic or initiating a search, scroll down to view the results.

  • International Cultural Property Protection

    A website of the U.S. Department of State, this source provides international news concerning protection of cultural property, information about implementation of the international Convention on Cultural Property Implementation Act by the U.S., and online text of pertinent U.S. statutes and international agreements.


  • Languages of the Americas

    Through its homepage, the <i>Society for the Study of the Indigenous Languages of the Americas (SSILA)</i> gives access to a number of sources relating to American Indian languages: its monthly bulletin and quarterly newsletter, a listing of journal articles, and websites.

  • Mayan Epigraphic Database Project

    A working document designed to provide primary and secondary sources for Mayan epigraphy, it currently includes an online catalog of Maya Glyphs, resources for Mayanists, and instructions on how to contribute to the MED project sponsored in part by the Department of Anthropology at the University of Virginia.

  • SIL International

    The website of this organization, formerly known as the <i>Summer Institute of Linguistics</i>, gives information about its publications, software packages and workshops, as well as links to electronic texts such as the 16th edition of Ethnologue (2009), a catalog of the world's languages. <i>Ethnologue</i> provides classifications, lists, and geographic distributions of the world's languages. The Internet version includes clickable maps, language name and language family indexes, bibliography, and it is fully searchable by language, region, country or general keyword.

  • Yamada Language Center

    Offered by the University of Oregon's service and technology center for language teaching and learning, this site offers links to numerous languages.

Native American Resources

  • American Indian Health

    The National Library of Medicine's information portal to issues affecting the health and well-being of Native Americans provides links to tribal information, health topics, traditional healing, environmental health, government websites, publications research, healthcare access, and other related websites.

  • American Indians of the Pacific Northwest Digital Collection

    Developed by the University of Washington Libraries, this site provides a sizeable digital collection of original photographs and documents relating to Native American cultures of Alaska, British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and Montana. Digitized documents include maps, treaties, reports, and scholarly articles, all of which are complemented by essays on particular tribes and cross-cultural topics.

  • Early Canadiana Online (ECO)/Notre Mémoire en Ligne

    Produced by, ECO is a searchable full text collection of primary materials documenting Canadian history from the first European contact to the early 20th century. The collection includes many dictionaries, grammars, and vocabulary lists of Native languages, besides travel accounts, missionaries' reports, and other imprints related to American Indians. Its excellent search engine facilitates retrieval of desired materials. Free access to documents is not available for the entire collection.

  • Native American Sites

    A comprehensive collection of links to Native American sites on the Internet, compiled and organized by Lisa Mitten, a Native American librarian.

  • SODA: Southern Oregon Digital Archives

    Produced by the Southern Oregon University Library, SODA contains the Southern Oregon History Collection; the Bioregion Collection, covering the bioregion of Southern Oregon Klamath-Siskiyou; and the First Nations Collection, consisting of documents, books, and articles pertaining to the region's native inhabitants. One can search the collections for particular authors and titles.

  • Southeastern Native American Documents, 1730-1842

    Made available through the Digital Library of Georgia, a segment of that state's online Galileo system, this searchable and browsable site provides access to hundreds of digitized documents and images concerning the Native American peoples of the southeastern United States. 

  • The Journals of the Lewis and Clark Expedition

    Sponsored by the University of Nebraska Press, the Center for Great Plains Studies, and the University of Nebraska-Lincoln Libraries Electronic Text Center, this website gives online access to the celebrated Nebraska edition of the Lewis and Clark journals, edited by Gary E. Moulton. Though the project is now only in its beginning stages, it aims to make available the entire text of the journals -- almost 5000 pages. Besides the text the website features images as well as audio files of readings of passages from the journals.


Physical Anthropology

  • Biological Anthropology Web

    Provides an extensive collection of links to information about conferences and workshops, news sites, homepages of organizations and archives, as well as a selection of online book reviews.

  • e-Skeletons Project

    The virtual images offered by this website enable one to view and compare bones of human, baboon, and gorilla skeletons. The Project also provides an online glossary of descriptive anatomical terms.

  • Human Origins Program

    Describes the Smithsonian Human Origins Program, offers a virtual tour of the Hall of Human Ancestors in the National Museum of Natural History, reports recent findings in paleoanthropology, enables a user to e-mail the Smithsonian paleoanthropologists questions about human origins, and provides links to related websites.

  • Institute of Human Origins (IHO)

    The Web pages of the Institute, located at Arizona State University, provide information about the research and educational activities of its staff, world tours, and some related websites. It also features a discussion of the famous early hominid Lucy.

  • Welcome to the Skull Module!

    Produced by the Department of Anthropology at California State University - Chico. Graphical presentation of the human skull accompanied by a glossary of related terms.

  • Written in Bone: Forensic Files of the 17th-Century Chesapeake

    A fascinating forensic investigation of skeletal remains of 17th-century colonists of Jamestown and inhabitants of St. Mary's City, Maryland. The website accompanies an exhibition offered by the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History until February 6, 2011.

Smithsonian Institution Resources

  • African Voices

    Offers a dynamic, virtual tour of the African Voices exhibition in the National Museum of Natural History. The site enables the visitor to explore the history of Africa, themes in the exhibition, and the work of a master carver, as well as to obtain a bibliography of published works on Africa and to link to related websites.

  • Anthropology Conservation Laboratory

    The Laboratory's website offers information about access to the anthropological collections of the Smithsonian, a statement of sampling policy, and links to other sites concerned with conservation and preservation. It also gives online access to back issues of the ICOM Ethnographic Conservation Newsletter.

  • Anthropology Department, National Museum of Natural History

    At this site one can find information about the Department's research and collections, links to online exhibitions and research programs, news about the Department members' current field work and recently published books, a list of publications (1990 - 2000) of the Department, public information, and a history of the Department.

  • Anthropology on the Internet for K-12

    Expressly designed for teachers and students interested in anthropology, whether in kindergarten or twelfth grade, this site provides a broadly useful compilation of Internet sources for archaeology, social/cultural anthropology, physical anthropology, linguistics, and area studies, as well as links to museums, virtual exhibits, electronic publications, and professional associations.

  • Anthropology Outreach Materials

    Emphasizing public and educational information, the website of the Anthropology Department's Outreach Materials offers numerous online, printable teachers' packets, bibliographies, and guides to various anthropological topics. Noteworthy is AnthroNotes, the biannual publication for teachers. The mission of the Outreach Office is to provide teachers resources for integrating anthropology into the K - 12 curriculum.

  • Program in Human Ecology and Archaeobiology

    Representing a program focusing on the earliest domestication of plants and animals and the development of agricultural economies, this website contains information about the program's collections, staff, and research, as well as links to numerous topically related online information sources.

  • Department of Anthropology Collections and Archives Program

    This site enables users to apply to visit stored Smithsonian anthropological collections, to request catalog information, to order photographs, and to contact research staff.

  • Arctic Studies Center

    Presents information on the Center's research projects and publications. A virtual exhibit takes you through the halls of cyberspace with images, text, audio and video clips from native cultures of the Arctic, including those of the Vikings, Ainu, and peoples of northeastern Siberia and Alaska.

  • By Aeroplane to Pygmyland: Revisiting the 1926 Dutch and American Expedition to New Guinea

    Through interpretive essays, diaries, and photographs, this site portrays and examines the 1926 joint Dutch-American expedition to Dutch New Guinea (now called Papua, within the Republic of Indonesia).

  • Handbook of North American Indians

    The Handbook is a multivolume comprehensive encyclopedia of Native Americans living north of Mesoamerica. This site provides a list of titles - with volume numbers, publication dates, editors' names, brief descriptions of content, ISBN numbers, and prices - of the volumes that have been published. It also includes a link to the U.S. Government Online Bookstore, from which one can buy the volumes.

  • Human Origins Program

    Describes the Smithsonian Human Origins Program, offers a virtual tour of the Hall of Human Ancestors in the National Museum of Natural History, reports the latest findings in paleoanthropology, enables a user to e-mail the Smithsonian paleoanthropologists questions about human origins, and provides links to related websites.

  • Ives Goddard's Home Page

    In his home page, Smithsonian anthropological linguist Ives Goddard, a specialist in Alonquian languages, provides online access to several of his recent articles on Native American languages and linguistics. Among these articles are 'I am a Red-Skin': The Adoption of a Native American Expression (1769-1826), and The Identity of Red Thunder Cloud. The site also includes a link to A Meskwaki Winter Story, a video presentation of his translation of a Meskwaki folktale traditionally told in winter. The story is called The Married Couple: the Man Whose Wife Was Wooed by a Bear.

  • Kayapó Headdresses

    This online exhibit displays beautiful feather headdresses from South America that are a part of the Smithsonian collection which is not on public display, except via the Web. Includes photos and text.

  • National Anthropological Archives (NAA) and Human Studies Film Archives (HSFA)

    These archives collect and preserve historical and contemporary anthropological materials that document the world's cultures and the history of the discipline. Their collections include manuscripts, fieldnotes, correspondence, photographs, maps, sound recordings, film and video, all of which can be searched online. Selected finding aids are also available, as well as links to ethnographic archives and resources, sites about anthropologists, and the Guide to the Preservation of Anthropological Records. The site also features several online exhibits, including Lakota Winter Counts.

  • National Museum of the American Indian

    Information on the collections and exhibits of the Smithsonian's newest museum, as well as publications and recordings, film and video, events and activities, and educational resources and programs.

  • Native American Repatriation Review Committee

    The Review Committee was established by Congress to monitor and review the repatriation process at the Smithsonian. In carrying out its duties, the committee is required to ensure fair and objective consideration of all relevant evidence, upon request of any affected party, review any findings of cultural affiliation, and facilitate the resolution of any dispute between tribes concerning the repatriation of remains and objects. An especially useful feature of this site is its link to A Research Guide to the Native American Collections in the National Anthropological Archives and Human Studies Film Archives.

  • Repatriation Office

    This site gives detailed descriptions of the Office's functions, activities, and responsibilities; provides summaries of repatriation reports; and displays tables showing repatriation of archaeological and ethnological materials, as well as human remains.

  • SIL Digital Library: BAE Bulletin 159

    The Horse in Blackfoot Indian Culture, first published in BAE Bulletin 159 (1955).

  • SIL Digital Library: BAE Bulletin 164

    John C. Ewers: "Hair Pipes in Plains Indian Adornment," which originally appeared in BAE Bulletin 164 (1957)

  • SIL Digital Library: BAE Bulletin 200

    BAE Bulletin 200 (1971) indexes by author, title, and selected subjects the published works of the Bureau of American Ethnology.

  • Smithsonian Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage

    The Folklife Center provides images and text from its recent events and exhibitions, including the Festival of American Folklife, and much more - notably, a description of the holdings of the Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections, searchable catalogs and digital downloads of Smithsonian Folkways Recordings.

  • Smithsonian Museum Conservation Institute (MCI)

    A rich source of information about conservation, preservation, and technical study and analysis of museum collections, this site also contains practical advice about taking care of various kinds of objects.

  • The Canela Indians of Northeastern Central Brazil

    Visit the Canela Indians with a field ethnologist, and read about the challenges of conducting ethnographic research in a beautiful savannah setting. Let photos, videos, and descriptive writing enhance your understanding of Canela life. Views of festivals, sports and activities of individuals will develop your appreciation of the lifeways of the Canela. Find a literature section that gives you anthropological information about the Canela, and locate links to the Canela video “Mending Ways” and to on-going research by Brazilian experts.

  • The Search for a Past: The Prehistory of the Indigenous Saami in Northern Coastal Sweden

    The origin of the Saami (also known as the Lapps) and their language and culture is a much debated issue in Nordic research. This colorful, well-organized site reports a Smithsonian archaeological project whose goal is to gather data that would help to resolve this issue. At the top of the introductory page are red icons bearing gold Saami symbols. The icons lead to information about the project's research team, statements of research objectives and hypotheses, and to sections on fieldwork, archaeological sites from periods of Saami prehistory, selective bibliography, and weblinks.

  • Written in Bone: Forensic Files of the 17th-Century Chesapeake

    A fascinating forensic investigation of skeletal remains of 17th-century colonists of Jamestown and inhabitants of St. Mary's City, Maryland. The website accompanies an exhibition offered by the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History until February 6, 2011.

  • Written in Stone: Inscriptions from the National Museum of Saudi Arabia

    This resource presents selected pre-Islamic and Islamic inscriptions from the Epigraphy Collections of Saudi Arabia's National Museum. Originally found carved or engraved on stones, mountains, or cliff faces throughout Saudi Arabia, these writings are like an open library of the region's cultural and linguistic heritage. Scripts used in the Arabian peninsula developed from the earliest pictograph-like Thamudic inscriptions into the monumental writing and calligraphic traditions of the Islamic period.

Social/Cultural Anthropology